methods of plant virus aggregation

methods of plant virus aggregation

X-RAY AND CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC STUDIES OF PLANT VIRUS ...

II. Modes of aggregation of virus particles. III. (1) The structure of the particles. (2) Biological implications. Part I, after an historical introduction, describes the method of preparation, from solutions of the virus, of optically oriented specimens of different concentrations.

Viral Aggregation: Impact on Virus Behavior in the ...

The presence of viral aggregates may also result in overestimation of removal by filtration processes. Virus aggregation-disaggregation is a complex process and predicting the behavior of any individual virus is difficult under a given set of environmental circumstances without actual experimental data.

Purification of potato virus X without aggregation ...

Purification of potato virus X (PVX) by differential ultracentrifugation yielded preparations of aggregated entwined masses of flexuous rods. Nonaggregated particles were obtained by

WO2014204303A2 - Methods for the prevention of aggregation ...

Discuss; 230000002776 aggregation Effects 0.000 title claims abstract description 77; 238000004220 aggregation Methods 0.000 title claims abstract description 77; 210000000605 viral structures Anatomy 0.000 title abstract description 119; 230000002265 prevention Effects 0.000 title description 12; 239000000203 mixture Substances 0.000 claims description 141; 235000001014 amino acid Nutrition

Virology Techniques - AgriLife

involves the ability to isolate the virus. The two most commonly used methods are cell culture and fertile chicken eggs. Several problems exist with this tech-nology. One is that the success of isolation is depen-dent on a viable virus particle. Often, when trying to identify a virus as the source of a disease, the virus

A beneficial effect of trypsin on the purification of ...

May 01, 1988 · We have found that the use of trypsin during the purification of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) will prevent aggregation of the virus and significantly increase virus yield. Materials and Methods Virus extraction and purification Leaves of six-week old tendergreen mustard (Brassica perviridis Bailey) were inoculated by rubbing a homogenate of ...

Plant virus - Wikipedia

Plants have specialized mechanisms for transporting mRNAs through plasmodesmata, and these mechanisms are thought to be used by RNA viruses to spread from one cell to another. Plant defenses against viral infection include, among other measures, the use of siRNA in response to dsRNA. Most plant viruses encode a protein to suppress this response.

Techniques of Virus Cultivation - MicrobiologyInfo

Oct 26, 2018 · Cultivation of plant viruses. There are some methods of Cultivation of plant viruses such as plant tissue cultures, cultures of separated cells, or cultures of protoplasts, etc. viruses can be grown in whole plants. Leaves are mechanically inoculated by rubbing with a mixture of viruses

Current and Prospective Methods for Plant Disease Detection

Aug 06, 2015 · In this article, we reviewed the currently existing methods for detection of plant diseases caused by pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and fungi. Although established methods such as PCR, FISH, ELISA, IF, FCM and GC-MS are already available and widely used for plant disease detection, they are relatively difficult to operate, require expert ...

Types of vector-borne plant pathogens Types of vectors

1/30/2015 2 Transmission efficiency Factors affecting transmission Intensity of virus infected source plants Virus content per source plant Vector intensity Vector aggregation Vector movement (short- vs. long-distance) • ‘crowd diseases’ that spread slowly like cocoa swollen shoot disease by mealybugs • ‘vagile diseases’ that spread quickly like African cassava

A general model of plant‐virus disease infection ...

Dec 25, 2001 · Here, infection rates for plant-virus diseases that are of a more general form than the familiar bilinear terms are examined. For such diseases, the power parameter can be regarded as a measure of the spatial aggregation of the vectors or as a coefficient of interference between them, depending on the context.

(PDF) Transmitting Plant Viruses Using Whiteflies | Jane ...

These can be obtained from collaborators or from the field. If field collected, whiteflies should be reared for at least 8 weeks on nonhost plants of the plant virus, and check for absence of plant symptoms to be sure they are free of plant viruses. 2. Week 1: Introduce clean whiteflies to the first cage of plants.

INTRODUCTION TO PLANT VIRUSES - Elsevier

Although plant viruses do not have an immediate impact on humans to the extent that human viruses do, the damage they do to food supplies has a significant indi-rect effect. The study of plant viruses has led the overall understanding of viruses in many aspects. II. HISTORY Although many early written and pictorial records of diseases caused by ...

Ultrastructural studies of the aggregation and fusion of ...

Electron microscopy has been used to assess the efficiency of four different techniques as potential methods for fusing isolated plant protoplasts. Protoplast aggregation has been achieved by the use of an antiserum, high pH, polyethylene glycol 6000 or poly-L-lysine. The ultrastructural characteristics of each treatment are described. Fusion of adjacent surface membranes does not necessarily ...

Biosensors for plant pathogen detection - ScienceDirect

Jul 15, 2017 · Plants display different symptoms on leaves, stems and fruits due to plant disease infections (López et al., 2003, Al-Hiary et al., 2011) ().These symptoms are particularly useful for visual observation as a conventional first step for plant disease diagnosis but it fails in detecting the presence of pathogen in early infection stages when plant infections are symptomless..

Targeted Protein Aggregation | VIB Switch Laboratory

Most recently, we showed that the targeted protein aggregation approach is highly effective against viruses, as well. As viral replication requires the production of high amounts of viral proteins, proper protein folding is an Achilles heel for the virus. Short amyloidogenic protein fragments that target influenza A and Zika virus stopped the ...

An Analytical Method for Generation Unit Aggregation in ...

The generation unit aggregation is frequently used in a virtual power plant which participates in real-time spot markets. In this letter, an analytical method is proposed to quickly and precisely ...

(PDF) Integrating CRISPR-Cas and Next Generation ...

Oct 25, 2021 · in barley plants and banana streak virus in banana plants by targeting conserved coding sequences present in the genome of the viruses ( Kis et al., 2019 ; Tripathi et al., 2019 ).

Modelling Plant Disease Epidemics | SpringerLink

An epidemic is the progress of disease in time and space. Each epidemic has a structure whose temporal dynamics and spatial patterns are jointly determined by the pathosystem characteristics and environmental conditions. One of the important objectives in epidemiology is to understand such spatio-temporal dynamics via mathematical and statistical modelling. In this paper, we outline common ...

The Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping of Rice Plant and the ...

WBPH induces plant disease by mediating the virus to plants. Therefore, when cq-9, a substance that induces resistance to plant viruses, was applied, the survival rate and vasorelaxation of CLP-surgery mice were analyzed positively. Furthermore, cq-9 increases the survival rate of CLP-surgery mice by 60%. Cq-9 reduced rat platelets aggregation.

US20150198591A1 - Methods for detecting and measuring ...

Methods, compositions, systems, and devices are provided for performing and analyzing agglutination assays. In one aspect, methods for image analysis of agglutination assays are provided. In another aspects, methods for performing agglutination assays are provided. In one aspect, the methods may be used for the detection of various molecules, including viruses or antibodies against a virus.

METHODS FOR THE PREVENTION OF AGGREGATION OF VIRAL

Reduction of virus aggregation can be achieved by addition of a (concentrated) solution of a basic amino acid or derivative. Any skilled person can fine-tune this method

Ultrastructural Studies of the Aggregation and Fusion of ...

methods are assessed in terms of their side effects and efficiency as fusion techniques. Materials and Methods а) Protoplast Isolation. This was carried out as described by Motoyoshi et al. (1973). Protoplasts maintained overnight after an aggregation treatment were suspended in the simplified medium containing antibiotics used in virus studies

Aggregation and incidence of disease, Plant Pathology | 10 ...

Dec 01, 1992 · The plants in each sample were assessed for symptoms (which are diagnostic) of tobacco etch virus and tobacco vein mottling virus up to 20 times at intervals of 2-7 days. The collection of the data, and the calculation of the mean and variance of

(PDF) Transmitting Plant Viruses Using Whiteflies | Jane ...

These can be obtained from collaborators or from the field. If field collected, whiteflies should be reared for at least 8 weeks on nonhost plants of the plant virus, and check for absence of plant symptoms to be sure they are free of plant viruses. 2. Week 1: Introduce clean whiteflies to the first cage of plants.

Chemical Addressability of Ultraviolet-Inactivated Viral ...

Oct 02, 2008 · Introduction. Virus particles have received increasing attention as natural platforms for molecular display in an extensive variety of nanotechnology applications (reviewed in ).Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), a plant virus, has been developed as a programmable nanoparticle platform for vaccine development –, and immunoassay detection .Furthermore, we recently demonstrated CPMV

Viruses in Wastewater Utilities: A Review

In conventional wastewater treatment plants, adsorption is ... Virus Detection Methods in Wastewater Viruses as Waterborne Pathogens Comparison of Virus Removal in Full Scale Traditional WWTP and MBRs ... K., Mukherjee, B., Kahler, A. M., Zepp, R., Molina, M., 2012. Influence of Inorganic Ions on Aggregation and Adsorption Behaviors of Human ...

Biosensors for plant pathogen detection - ScienceDirect

Jul 15, 2017 · Plants display different symptoms on leaves, stems and fruits due to plant disease infections (López et al., 2003, Al-Hiary et al., 2011) ().These symptoms are particularly useful for visual observation as a conventional first step for plant disease diagnosis but it fails in detecting the presence of pathogen in early infection stages when plant infections are symptomless..

(PDF) Plant Disease Diagnosis: Technological Advancements ...

Next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based innovative methods have shown great potential to detect multiple viruses simultaneously; however, such techniques are in the preliminary stages in plant ...

(PDF) Plant Disease Incidence: Distributions ...

Disease incidence is a measure of the probability (n) of a plant or other plant. entity being diseased. This probability is obviously a function of the pathogen, host, and environment. With an ...

Plant Disease Diagnosis

In cases where the plant pathogen is difficult or impossible to grow on artificial media, other methods may be used for their detection, such as the use of serological tests for viruses. Viral identification is often accomplished utilizing ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) which is based on the binding of an antibody produced to a ...

Disease outbreaks in plant-vector-virus models with vector ...

While feeding on host plants, viruliferous insects serve as vectors for viruses. Successful viral transmission depends on vector behavior. Two behaviors that impact viral transmission are vector aggregation and dispersal. Vector aggregation may be due to chemical or visual cues or feeding preferences. Vector dispersal can result in widespread disease outbreaks among susceptible host plants.

Spatial patterns of the Citrus leprosis virus and its ...

Aug 15, 2018 · The study showed that the spatial patterns of virus-infected and mite-infested trees were different, with a strong aggregation pattern of trees with leprosis symptoms that increased over time. Conversely, the spatial pattern of B. yothersi showed randomness or weak aggregation at all three spatial hierarchical levels.

The Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping of Rice Plant and the ...

WBPH induces plant disease by mediating the virus to plants. Therefore, when cq-9, a substance that induces resistance to plant viruses, was applied, the survival rate and vasorelaxation of CLP-surgery mice were analyzed positively. Furthermore, cq-9 increases the survival rate of CLP-surgery mice by 60%. Cq-9 reduced rat platelets aggregation.

Production and characterization of virus-like particles of ...

Nov 21, 2019 · Virus-like particle (VLP) platform represents a promising approach for the generation of efficient and immunogenic subunit vaccines. Here, the feasibility of using grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) VLPs as a new carrier for the presentation of human papillomavirus (HPV) L2 epitope was studied. To achieve this goal, a model of the HPV L2 epitope secondary structure was predicted and its insertion ...

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